Quality Management (QM) includes quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. Quality control is ensured by setting key thresholds for the measured attributes and managing expectations within the established thresholds. Quality assurance ensures that the outcomes or deliverables meet the defined and agreed client expectations and standards. Quality improvement takes inputs from quality control and quality assurance to develop and implement solutions to address deficiency or improvement needs. Any defect or issue detected requires resolution which may be simple or complex. Some improvements may be implemented during the current project life cycle, through change management process, or deferred to a later date.
Quality management activities are performed for project management and product delivery management, as good practices. All phases, work packages and deliverables should be monitored for quality assurance. Exercise appropriate quality control measures to manage performances outside the established tolerance range or thresholds.
For product delivery management, quality assurance is usually accomplished through comprehensive product testing in the laboratory (a less expensive option) by the product experts or testing group, or in the field (a more expensive option) by selected users or customers.